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Zsuzsanna Lőrincz

Hungary

Translate From: English (EN)

Translate To: Hungarian (HU)

5,137

Words Translated

1,044

Terms Translated

Zsuzsanna’s Selected Translation Work

Terms and text shown below represent Zsuzsanna’s contributions to TermWiki.com, a free terminology website and knowledge resource for the translation community.

stdClass::__set_state(array( 'id' => '4266075', 'url' => 'HU/advertorial_₃', 'image' => '', 'title' => 'szerkesztőségi oldalnak látszó hirdetés', 'tags' => array ( 0 => 'szerkesztőségi oldalnak látszó hirdetés', 1 => 'Business services', 2 => 'Public relations', 3 => '', ), 'term' => 'szerkesztőségi oldalnak látszó hirdetés', 'source_id' => 1043663, 'type' => 'term', 'namespace' => 1332, 'nstext' => 'HU', 'industry' => array ( 0 => 'Business services', ), 'category' => array ( 0 => 'Public relations', ), 'lastedit' => '20121119100158', 'part_of_speech' => 'noun', 'creation_user' => 'Zsanna', 'special_term' => '', 'definition' => 'Olyan hirdetés, amelyet egy tárgyilagos szerkesztőségi vezércikk formájában írnak, nyomtatott kiadásban jelenik meg és tördelésében általában igazodik egy szabályos és pártatlan hír kinézetéhez.', 'usage_comment' => '', 'glossary' => '', 'width' => 0, 'height' => 0, '_version_' => 1503616674039857154, 'nstext_full' => 'Hungarian (HU)', 's_attr' => stdClass::__set_state(array( 'Term' => 'advertorial', 'Definition' => 'An advertisement written in the form of an objective opinion editorial, and presented in a printed publication usually designed to look like a legitimate and independent news story.', 'Domain' => 'Documentation; Marketing', 'Industry' => 'Business services', 'Part of Speech' => 'noun', 'Product Category' => 'Public relations', 'Usage Status' => 'New', 'Synonym' => '', 'Creation User' => 'cutecee12', 'Creation Date' => '2011/4/13', 'Source Lang' => '1180', )), 's_namespace_text' => 'EN', 's_namespace_text_full' => 'English (EN)', 's_title' => 'advertorial_₃', ))

English (EN)advertorial

An advertisement written in the form of an objective opinion editorial, and presented in a printed publication usually designed to look like a legitimate and independent news story.

Hungarian (HU)szerkesztőségi oldalnak látszó hirdetés

Olyan hirdetés, amelyet egy tárgyilagos szerkesztőségi vezércikk formájában írnak, nyomtatott kiadásban jelenik meg és tördelésében általában igazodik egy szabályos és pártatlan hír kinézetéhez.

Business services; Public relations
stdClass::__set_state(array( 'id' => '4257476', 'url' => 'HU/brand_equity', 'image' => '', 'title' => 'márka eszmei értéke', 'tags' => array ( 0 => 'márka eszmei értéke', 1 => 'Advertising', 2 => 'Marketing communications', 3 => 'Butterworth-Heinemann', 4 => '', ), 'term' => 'márka eszmei értéke', 'source_id' => 515049, 'type' => 'term', 'namespace' => 1332, 'nstext' => 'HU', 'industry' => array ( 0 => 'Advertising', ), 'category' => array ( 0 => 'Marketing communications', ), 'company' => array ( 0 => 'Butterworth-Heinemann', ), 'lastedit' => '20121117114950', 'part_of_speech' => 'noun', 'creation_user' => 'Zsanna', 'special_term' => '', 'definition' => 'The assignment of a capital value to a brand. Sometimes used to describe the intangible benefits associated with the use of a brand.', 'usage_comment' => '', 'glossary' => '', 'width' => 0, 'height' => 0, '_version_' => 1503616636163194881, 'nstext_full' => 'Hungarian (HU)', 's_attr' => stdClass::__set_state(array( 'Term' => 'brand equity', 'Company' => 'Butterworth-Heinemann', 'Definition' => 'The assignment of a capital value to a brand. Sometimes used to describe the intangible benefits associated with the use of a brand.', 'Domain' => 'Marketing', 'Industry' => 'Advertising', 'Part of Speech' => 'noun', 'Product Category' => 'Marketing communications', 'Usage Status' => 'New', 'Creation User' => 'Macyen', 'Creation Date' => '2010/12/22', 'Source Lang' => '1180', )), 's_namespace_text' => 'EN', 's_namespace_text_full' => 'English (EN)', 's_title' => 'brand_equity', ))

English (EN)brand equity

The assignment of a capital value to a brand. Sometimes used to describe the intangible benefits associated with the use of a brand.

Hungarian (HU)márka eszmei értéke

The assignment of a capital value to a brand. Sometimes used to describe the intangible benefits associated with the use of a brand.

Advertising; Marketing communications
stdClass::__set_state(array( 'id' => '4401153', 'url' => 'HU/retroactive_legislation', 'image' => '', 'title' => 'visszamenőleges hatályú jogalkotás; visszamenőleges törvényhozás', 'tags' => array ( 0 => 'visszamenőleges hatályú jogalkotás; visszamenőleges törvényhozás', 1 => 'Politics', 2 => 'Political science', 3 => '', ), 'term' => 'visszamenőleges hatályú jogalkotás; visszamenőleges törvényhozás', 'source_id' => 1882545, 'type' => 'term', 'namespace' => 1332, 'nstext' => 'HU', 'industry' => array ( 0 => 'Politics', ), 'category' => array ( 0 => 'Political science', ), 'lastedit' => '20121212091039', 'part_of_speech' => 'noun', 'creation_user' => 'Zsanna', 'special_term' => '', 'definition' => 'Olyan törvényhozás, amely a jelen és a jövő mellett a törvény elfogadása előtti, meghatározott időszakra is vonatkozik.', 'usage_comment' => '', 'glossary' => '', 'width' => 0, 'height' => 0, '_version_' => 1503617294706671618, 'nstext_full' => 'Hungarian (HU)', 's_attr' => stdClass::__set_state(array( 'Term' => 'retroactive legislation', 'Definition' => 'Legislation that applies to a specified period before the legislation was passed, as well as to the present and future.', 'Industry' => 'Politics', 'Part of Speech' => 'noun', 'Product Category' => 'Political science', 'Creation User' => 'Delaila', 'Creation Date' => '2012/1/19', 'Source Lang' => '1180', )), 's_namespace_text' => 'EN', 's_namespace_text_full' => 'English (EN)', 's_title' => 'retroactive_legislation', ))

English (EN)retroactive legislation

Legislation that applies to a specified period before the legislation was passed, as well as to the present and future.

Hungarian (HU)visszamenőleges hatályú jogalkotás; visszamenőleges törvényhozás

Olyan törvényhozás, amely a jelen és a jövő mellett a törvény elfogadása előtti, meghatározott időszakra is vonatkozik.

Politics; Political science
stdClass::__set_state(array( 'id' => '4367136', 'url' => 'HU/acquisition_₃', 'image' => '', 'title' => 'akvizíció; vállalat kivásárlása', 'tags' => array ( 0 => 'akvizíció; vállalat kivásárlása', 1 => 'Financial services', 2 => 'General Finance', 3 => 'Reuters', 4 => '', ), 'term' => 'akvizíció; vállalat kivásárlása', 'source_id' => 98657, 'type' => 'term', 'namespace' => 1332, 'nstext' => 'HU', 'industry' => array ( 0 => 'Financial services', ), 'category' => array ( 0 => 'General Finance', ), 'company' => array ( 0 => 'Reuters', ), 'lastedit' => '20121204143112', 'part_of_speech' => 'noun', 'creation_user' => 'Zsanna', 'special_term' => '', 'definition' => 'The purchase by one company of another, for cash, an exchange of shares, or a combination of both. The process, also known as a takeover, can be friendly and have the agreement of the acquired company. Or it can be hostile, when the target rejects the approach and tries to resist being acquired. A takeover or acquisition is usually done with the help of an investment bank and its M&A, or mergers and acquisition, division.', 'usage_comment' => '', 'glossary' => '', 'width' => 0, 'height' => 0, '_version_' => 1503617139721895939, 'nstext_full' => 'Hungarian (HU)', 's_attr' => stdClass::__set_state(array( 'Term' => 'acquisition', 'Definition' => 'The purchase by one company of another, for cash, an exchange of shares, or a combination of both. The process, also known as a takeover, can be friendly and have the agreement of the acquired company. Or it can be hostile, when the target rejects the approach and tries to resist being acquired. A takeover or acquisition is usually done with the help of an investment bank and its M&A, or mergers and acquisition, division.', 'Part of Speech' => 'noun', 'Industry' => 'Financial services', 'Product Category' => 'General Finance', 'Company' => 'Reuters', 'Domain' => 'Documentation', 'Usage Status' => 'New', 'Creation User' => 'Jessehe', 'Creation Date' => '2010/7/12', 'Source Lang' => '1180', )), 's_namespace_text' => 'EN', 's_namespace_text_full' => 'English (EN)', 's_title' => 'acquisition_₃', ))

English (EN)acquisition

The purchase by one company of another, for cash, an exchange of shares, or a combination of both. The process, also known as a takeover, can be friendly and have the agreement of the acquired company. Or it can be hostile, when the target rejects the ...

Hungarian (HU)akvizíció; vállalat kivásárlása

The purchase by one company of another, for cash, an exchange of shares, or a combination of both. The process, also known as a takeover, can be friendly and have the agreement of the acquired company. Or it can be hostile, when the target rejects the ...

Financial services; General Finance
stdClass::__set_state(array( 'id' => '4312013', 'url' => 'HU/money_market_demand_account_(M.M.D.A.)', 'image' => '', 'title' => 'pénzpiaci betétszámla', 'tags' => array ( 0 => 'pénzpiaci betétszámla', 1 => 'Financial services', 2 => 'General Finance', 3 => 'Bloomberg', 4 => '', ), 'term' => 'pénzpiaci betétszámla', 'source_id' => 52735, 'type' => 'term', 'namespace' => 1332, 'nstext' => 'HU', 'industry' => array ( 0 => 'Financial services', ), 'category' => array ( 0 => 'General Finance', ), 'company' => array ( 0 => 'Bloomberg', ), 'lastedit' => '20121126104936', 'part_of_speech' => 'noun', 'creation_user' => 'Zsanna', 'special_term' => '', 'definition' => 'An account that pays interest based on short-term interest rates.', 'usage_comment' => '', 'glossary' => '', 'width' => 0, 'height' => 0, '_version_' => 1503616881240571907, 'nstext_full' => 'Hungarian (HU)', 's_attr' => stdClass::__set_state(array( 'Term' => 'money market demand account (M.M.D.A.)', 'Definition' => 'An account that pays interest based on short-term interest rates.', 'Part of Speech' => 'noun', 'Industry' => 'Financial services', 'Product Category' => 'General Finance', 'Company' => 'Bloomberg', 'Domain' => 'Documentation', 'Usage Status' => 'New', 'Revision User' => 'Jessehe', 'Revision Date' => '2010/6/16', 'Creation User' => 'Jessehe', 'Creation Date' => '2010/6/16', 'Source Lang' => '1180', )), 's_namespace_text' => 'EN', 's_namespace_text_full' => 'English (EN)', 's_title' => 'money_market_demand_account_(M.M.D.A.)', ))

English (EN)money market demand account (M.M.D.A.)

An account that pays interest based on short-term interest rates.

Hungarian (HU)pénzpiaci betétszámla

An account that pays interest based on short-term interest rates.

Financial services; General Finance
stdClass::__set_state(array( 'id' => '4381699', 'url' => 'HU/open_ended_question', 'image' => '', 'title' => 'nyitott kérdés', 'tags' => array ( 0 => 'nyitott kérdés', 1 => 'Professional careers', 2 => 'Sales', 3 => '', ), 'term' => 'nyitott kérdés', 'source_id' => 633113, 'type' => 'term', 'namespace' => 1332, 'nstext' => 'HU', 'industry' => array ( 0 => 'Professional careers', ), 'category' => array ( 0 => 'Sales', ), 'lastedit' => '20121210084546', 'part_of_speech' => 'noun', 'creation_user' => 'Zsanna', 'special_term' => '', 'definition' => 'Questions that cannot be answered with a "yes" or a "no", generally begin with the words, what, how or why and usually encourage a prospect or customer to expand on a response, as a result, open-ended questions usually help the salesperson learn much more about the prospect or customer than a close-ended question.', 'usage_comment' => '', 'glossary' => '', 'width' => 0, 'height' => 0, '_version_' => 1503617201634017280, 'nstext_full' => 'Hungarian (HU)', 's_attr' => stdClass::__set_state(array( 'Term' => 'open ended question', 'Definition' => 'Questions that cannot be answered with a "yes" or a "no", generally begin with the words, what, how or why and usually encourage a prospect or customer to expand on a response, as a result, open-ended questions usually help the salesperson learn much more about the prospect or customer than a close-ended question.', 'Domain' => 'Documentation', 'Industry' => 'Professional careers', 'Part of Speech' => 'noun', 'Product Category' => 'Sales', 'Usage Status' => 'New', 'Creation User' => 'Jeffed', 'Creation Date' => '2011/1/22', 'Source Lang' => '1180', )), 's_namespace_text' => 'EN', 's_namespace_text_full' => 'English (EN)', 's_title' => 'open_ended_question', ))

English (EN)open ended question

Questions that cannot be answered with a "yes" or a "no", generally begin with the words, what, how or why and usually encourage a prospect or customer to expand on a response, as a result, open-ended questions usually help the salesperson learn much more ...

Hungarian (HU)nyitott kérdés

Questions that cannot be answered with a "yes" or a "no", generally begin with the words, what, how or why and usually encourage a prospect or customer to expand on a response, as a result, open-ended questions usually help the salesperson learn much more ...

Professional careers; Sales
stdClass::__set_state(array( 'id' => '4395685', 'url' => 'HU/strike_₁₃', 'image' => '', 'title' => 'sztrájk', 'tags' => array ( 0 => 'sztrájk', 1 => 'Labor', 2 => 'Labor statistics', 3 => 'U.S. DOL', 4 => '', ), 'term' => 'sztrájk', 'source_id' => 705713, 'type' => 'term', 'namespace' => 1332, 'nstext' => 'HU', 'industry' => array ( 0 => 'Labor', ), 'category' => array ( 0 => 'Labor statistics', ), 'company' => array ( 0 => 'U.S. DOL', ), 'lastedit' => '20121211175454', 'part_of_speech' => 'noun', 'creation_user' => 'Zsanna', 'special_term' => '', 'definition' => 'A temporary stoppage of work by a group of workers (not necessarily union members) to express a grievance or enforce a demand. A strike is initiated by the workers of an establishment.', 'usage_comment' => '', 'glossary' => '', 'width' => 0, 'height' => 0, '_version_' => 1503617268822573057, 'nstext_full' => 'Hungarian (HU)', 's_attr' => stdClass::__set_state(array( 'Term' => 'strike', 'Company' => 'U.S. DOL', 'Definition' => 'A temporary stoppage of work by a group of workers (not necessarily union members) to express a grievance or enforce a demand. A strike is initiated by the workers of an establishment.', 'Domain' => 'Documentation', 'Industry' => 'Labor', 'Part of Speech' => 'noun', 'Product Category' => 'Labor statistics', 'Usage Status' => 'New', 'Creation User' => 'Levi Taylor', 'Creation Date' => '2011/2/6', 'Source Lang' => '1180', )), 's_namespace_text' => 'EN', 's_namespace_text_full' => 'English (EN)', 's_title' => 'strike_₁₃', ))

English (EN)strike

A temporary stoppage of work by a group of workers (not necessarily union members) to express a grievance or enforce a demand. A strike is initiated by the workers of an establishment.

Hungarian (HU)sztrájk

A temporary stoppage of work by a group of workers (not necessarily union members) to express a grievance or enforce a demand. A strike is initiated by the workers of an establishment.

Labor; Labor statistics
stdClass::__set_state(array( 'id' => '4400880', 'url' => 'HU/republic_₂', 'image' => '', 'title' => 'köztársaság', 'tags' => array ( 0 => 'köztársaság', 1 => 'Politics', 2 => 'U.S. politics', 3 => '', ), 'term' => 'köztársaság', 'source_id' => 1833452, 'type' => 'term', 'namespace' => 1332, 'nstext' => 'HU', 'industry' => array ( 0 => 'Politics', ), 'category' => array ( 0 => 'U.S. politics', ), 'lastedit' => '20121212082152', 'part_of_speech' => 'noun', 'creation_user' => 'Zsanna', 'special_term' => '', 'definition' => 'A state in which the supreme power is with the citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen by them.', 'usage_comment' => '', 'glossary' => '', 'width' => 0, 'height' => 0, '_version_' => 1503617293420068864, 'nstext_full' => 'Hungarian (HU)', 's_attr' => stdClass::__set_state(array( 'Term' => 'republic', 'Definition' => 'A state in which the supreme power is with the citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen by them.', 'Industry' => 'Politics', 'Part of Speech' => 'noun', 'Product Category' => 'U.S. politics', 'Creation User' => 'Everett Cartsten', 'Creation Date' => '2011/12/18', 'Source Lang' => '1180', )), 's_namespace_text' => 'EN', 's_namespace_text_full' => 'English (EN)', 's_title' => 'republic_₂', ))

English (EN)republic

A state in which the supreme power is with the citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen by them.

Hungarian (HU)köztársaság

A state in which the supreme power is with the citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen by them.

Politics; U.S. politics
stdClass::__set_state(array( 'id' => '4392634', 'url' => 'HU/cost-benefit_analysis_₅', 'image' => '', 'title' => 'költség-haszon elemzés', 'tags' => array ( 0 => 'költség-haszon elemzés', 1 => 'Economy', 2 => 'Economics', 3 => '', ), 'term' => 'költség-haszon elemzés', 'source_id' => 1563351, 'type' => 'term', 'namespace' => 1332, 'nstext' => 'HU', 'industry' => array ( 0 => 'Economy', ), 'category' => array ( 0 => 'Economics', ), 'lastedit' => '20121211132120', 'part_of_speech' => 'noun', 'creation_user' => 'Zsanna', 'special_term' => '', 'definition' => 'A study that compares the costs and benefits to society of providing a public good.', 'usage_comment' => '', 'glossary' => '', 'width' => 0, 'height' => 0, '_version_' => 1503617254693011456, 'nstext_full' => 'Hungarian (HU)', 's_attr' => stdClass::__set_state(array( 'Term' => 'cost-benefit analysis', 'Definition' => 'A study that compares the costs and benefits to society of providing a public good.', 'Industry' => 'Economy', 'Part of Speech' => 'noun', 'Product Category' => 'Economics', 'Usage Status' => 'New', 'Synonym' => '', 'Creation User' => 'ZhuFeng', 'Creation Date' => '2011/9/1', 'Source Lang' => '1180', )), 's_namespace_text' => 'EN', 's_namespace_text_full' => 'English (EN)', 's_title' => 'cost-benefit_analysis_₅', ))

English (EN)cost-benefit analysis

A study that compares the costs and benefits to society of providing a public good.

Hungarian (HU)költség-haszon elemzés

A study that compares the costs and benefits to society of providing a public good.

Economy; Economics
stdClass::__set_state(array( 'id' => '4364000', 'url' => 'HU/fiscal_policy_₂', 'image' => '', 'title' => 'költségvetési politika', 'tags' => array ( 0 => 'költségvetési politika', 1 => 'Economy', 2 => 'Economics', 3 => 'The Economist Some economists and policymakers argue for a balanced budget. Others say that a persistent deficit (public spending exceeding revenue) is acceptable provided, in accordance with the golden rule, the deficit is used for investment (in infrastructure, say) rather than consumption. However, there may be a danger that public-sector investment will result in the crowding out of more productive private investment. Whatever the overall stance on average over an economic cycle, most economists agree that fiscal policy should be counter-cyclical, aiming to automatically stabilize demand by increasing public spending relative to revenue when the economy is struggling and increasing taxes relative to spending towards the top of the cycle. For instance, social (welfare) handouts from the state usually increase during tough times, and fiscal drag boosts government revenue when the economy is growing. As for the bits and pieces making up fiscal policy, one debate is about how high public spending should be relative to GDP. In the United States and many Asian countries, public spending is less than 30% of GDP', 4 => 'in European countries, such as Germany and Sweden, it has been as high as 40-50%. Some economic studies suggest that lower public spending relative to GDP results in higher rates of growth, though this conclusion is controversial. Certainly, over the years, much public spending has been highly inefficient. Another issue is the form that taxation should take, especially the split between direct taxation and indirect taxation and between capital, income and expenditure tax.', 5 => '', ), 'term' => 'költségvetési politika', 'source_id' => 774414, 'type' => 'term', 'namespace' => 1332, 'nstext' => 'HU', 'industry' => array ( 0 => 'Economy', ), 'category' => array ( 0 => 'Economics', ), 'company' => array ( 0 => 'The Economist Some economists and policymakers argue for a balanced budget. Others say that a persistent deficit (public spending exceeding revenue) is acceptable provided, in accordance with the golden rule, the deficit is used for investment (in infrastructure, say) rather than consumption. However, there may be a danger that public-sector investment will result in the crowding out of more productive private investment. Whatever the overall stance on average over an economic cycle, most economists agree that fiscal policy should be counter-cyclical, aiming to automatically stabilize demand by increasing public spending relative to revenue when the economy is struggling and increasing taxes relative to spending towards the top of the cycle. For instance, social (welfare) handouts from the state usually increase during tough times, and fiscal drag boosts government revenue when the economy is growing. As for the bits and pieces making up fiscal policy, one debate is about how high public spending should be relative to GDP. In the United States and many Asian countries, public spending is less than 30% of GDP', 1 => 'in European countries, such as Germany and Sweden, it has been as high as 40-50%. Some economic studies suggest that lower public spending relative to GDP results in higher rates of growth, though this conclusion is controversial. Certainly, over the years, much public spending has been highly inefficient. Another issue is the form that taxation should take, especially the split between direct taxation and indirect taxation and between capital, income and expenditure tax.', ), 'lastedit' => '20121203094833', 'part_of_speech' => 'noun', 'creation_user' => 'Zsanna', 'special_term' => '', 'definition' => 'One of the two instruments of macroeconomic policy; monetary policy\'s side-kick. It comprises public spending and taxation, and any other government income or assistance to the private sector (such as tax breaks). It can be used to influence the level of demand in the economy, usually with the twin goals of getting unemployment as low as possible without triggering excessive inflation. At times it has been deployed to manage short-term demand through fine tuning, although since the end of the Keynesian era it has more often been targeted on long-term goals, with monetary policy more often used for shorter-term adjustments. For a government, there are two main issues in setting fiscal policy: what should be the overall stance of policy, and what form should its individual parts take? Some economists and policymakers argue for a balanced budget. Others say that a persistent deficit (public spending exceeding revenue) is acceptable provided, in accordance with the golden rule, the deficit is used for investment (in infrastructure, say) rather than consumption. However, there may be a danger that public-sector investment will result in the crowding out of more productive private investment. Whatever the overall stance on average over an economic cycle, most economists agree that fiscal policy should be counter-cyclical, aiming to automatically stabilize demand by increasing public spending relative to revenue when the economy is struggling and increasing taxes relative to spending towards the top of the cycle. For instance, social (welfare) handouts from the state usually increase during tough times, and fiscal drag boosts government revenue when the economy is growing. As for the bits and pieces making up fiscal policy, one debate is about how high public spending should be relative to GDP. In the United States and many Asian countries, public spending is less than 30% of GDP; in European countries, such as Germany and Sweden, it has been as high as 40-50%. Some economic studies suggest that lower public spending relative to GDP results in higher rates of growth, though this conclusion is controversial. Certainly, over the years, much public spending has been highly inefficient. Another issue is the form that taxation should take, especially the split between direct taxation and indirect taxation and between capital, income and expenditure tax.', 'usage_comment' => '', 'glossary' => '', 'width' => 0, 'height' => 0, '_version_' => 1503617124765007872, 'nstext_full' => 'Hungarian (HU)', 's_attr' => stdClass::__set_state(array( 'Term' => 'fiscal policy', 'Company' => 'The Economist', 'Definition' => 'One of the two instruments of macroeconomic policy; monetary policy\'s side-kick. It comprises public spending and taxation, and any other government income or assistance to the private sector (such as tax breaks). It can be used to influence the level of demand in the economy, usually with the twin goals of getting unemployment as low as possible without triggering excessive inflation. At times it has been deployed to manage short-term demand through fine tuning, although since the end of the Keynesian era it has more often been targeted on long-term goals, with monetary policy more often used for shorter-term adjustments. For a government, there are two main issues in setting fiscal policy: what should be the overall stance of policy, and what form should its individual parts take? Some economists and policymakers argue for a balanced budget. Others say that a persistent deficit (public spending exceeding revenue) is acceptable provided, in accordance with the golden rule, the deficit is used for investment (in infrastructure, say) rather than consumption. However, there may be a danger that public-sector investment will result in the crowding out of more productive private investment. Whatever the overall stance on average over an economic cycle, most economists agree that fiscal policy should be counter-cyclical, aiming to automatically stabilize demand by increasing public spending relative to revenue when the economy is struggling and increasing taxes relative to spending towards the top of the cycle. For instance, social (welfare) handouts from the state usually increase during tough times, and fiscal drag boosts government revenue when the economy is growing. As for the bits and pieces making up fiscal policy, one debate is about how high public spending should be relative to GDP. In the United States and many Asian countries, public spending is less than 30% of GDP; in European countries, such as Germany and Sweden, it has been as high as 40-50%. Some economic studies suggest that lower public spending relative to GDP results in higher rates of growth, though this conclusion is controversial. Certainly, over the years, much public spending has been highly inefficient. Another issue is the form that taxation should take, especially the split between direct taxation and indirect taxation and between capital, income and expenditure tax.', 'Domain' => 'Documentation', 'Industry' => 'Economy', 'Part of Speech' => 'noun', 'Product Category' => 'Economics', 'Usage Status' => 'New', 'Creation User' => 'summer.l', 'Creation Date' => '2011/2/21', 'Source Lang' => '1180', )), 's_namespace_text' => 'EN', 's_namespace_text_full' => 'English (EN)', 's_title' => 'fiscal_policy_₂', ))

English (EN)fiscal policy

One of the two instruments of macroeconomic policy; monetary policy's side-kick. It comprises public spending and taxation, and any other government income or assistance to the private sector (such as tax breaks). It can be used to influence the level of ...

Hungarian (HU)költségvetési politika

One of the two instruments of macroeconomic policy; monetary policy's side-kick. It comprises public spending and taxation, and any other government income or assistance to the private sector (such as tax breaks). It can be used to influence the level of ...

Economy; Economics